Briefings & Studies
With a seasoned advisory board and team with expertise in emerging countries, we produce briefs and studies on sustainable development, the new industrial order, new agrarian practices and access to resources. Developed in close connection with ministerial offices, executive secretariats, large multilateral organisations, and private decision-makers, these serve as pre-strategic or pre-operational expertise on the emerging world.
Policy Brief: TRANSFERS OF KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY ARE AT THE HEART OF THE CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPMENT; ENTERPRISES ARE THE PRIVILEGED PLAYERS
Technology transfer, coupled with the formation of knowledge, has long been an objective targeted by development policies. Issues related to climate and environmental transitions have reinforced the perception of the importance of technology transfer from the North to the South as a means to clean development. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol is the main tool of climate finance. Implemented in 2005, it aims to orchestrate this transfer of clean technologies. Criticized for its ineffectiveness, its mitigated success is above all a reminder of a truth that has been known for a long time: the technological absorption capacities of territories are more important than the technologies themselves. A strategy of development through technological diffusion cannot therefore ignore the support given to local economies and their enterprises – the support for the development of the market and probably also the support for the development of intellectual property regimes that underpin knowledge transfer to developing economies.
These last two points are necessary to articulate a healthy relationship between international technology-providing companies and local recipient companies and in build a framework that aids in appropriating, adapting and disseminating them … a necessary condition for the success of “technological seeding”.
Our recommendations are based on a logic spontaneously implemented by the countries that have been most effective in capturing the CDM “manna”: China, India and Brazil have been able to orchestrate their markets and, through generous offers in kind, to free themselves from the stakes blocking intellectual property elsewhere.
Policy Brief : NATURAL CAPITAL SOIL, A FACTOR FOR SUSTAINABLE GROWTH DIVERSIFICATION
By Edouard Lanckriet
The soil is a living ecosystem that is capable of growth and diversification. It is also a productive capital but the conventional methods and technologies of its exploitation could lead to its destruction. Reversing this paradigm is the basis of a green growth strategy: the soil can become a carbon sink again, and the material and energy it produces can fuel genuinely sustainable industries, especially mobility. As a capital, the soil is not irremediably degraded; Sustainable management of soil capital is hence a priority for sustainable diversification and climate.
Policy Brief: FINANCIAL REGULATION AND CLIMATE EMERGENCY – FOR GREENER PRUDENTIAL AND ACCOUNTING STANDARDS:
By Abdeldjellil Bouzidi, Alain Grandjean, Mireille Martini
Abdeljellil Bouzidi, The Bridge Tank, has co-authored a Brief for the Think Tank Terra-Nova http://tnova.fr/etudes/regulation-financiere-et-urgence-climatique-pour-des-normes-prudentielles-et-comptables-plus-vertes in which the authors state that «It is vital for our economies to quickly reconcile funding methods with climate goals. Both the prudential regulation of European finance and the accounting system are still exclusively focused on the prevention of a systemic crisis, which ignores in its sheer definition the climate dimension.
It is, hence, necessary and urgent to reinvest the prudential field to ensure the financing of the green economy and the fight against global warming by including environmentally macroeconomic criteria. More generally, we must stop thinking of environmental problems as externalities of the productive system.
Read more in french
Research Paper: ONE BELT ONE ROAD AND THE RECONFIGURATION OF EU-CHINA RELATIONS
By Xieshu WANG, Joël RUET, Xavier RICHET
At the 2017 Davos Economic Forum, Chinese President Xi Jinping emphasized the merits of globalization and called for more effective measures and structural reforms to establish equitable governance and build new growth models. The “One Belt One Road” (OBOR) initiative has been accelerated with the Chinese presidency of the G20 in 2016 and advocates more inclusive regional cooperation and offers ambitious plans to further tighten connections across the Eurasian and North African continents.
This paper highlights the reconfiguration of EU- China relations and explains the evolution of the trading flows between the two actors under the “One Belt One Road” initiative.
T20/G20 Policy Brief N°5: GREEN SHIFT TO SUSTAINABILITY: CO-BENEFITS & IMPACTS OF ENERGY TRANSFORMATION ON RESOURCE INDUSTRIES, TRADE, GROWTH, AND TAXES
By R. Andreas Kraemer (lead) – Center for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), Canada, Joël Ruet – The Bridge Tank, France, Barry Carin – Center for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), Canada, Max Gruenig – Ecologic Institute, Germany & United States, Fernando Naves Blumenschein & Renato Flores – Fundação, Getulio Vargas (FGV), Brazil, Akshay Mathur – Gateway House, India, Clara Brandi – German Development Institute (GDI-DIE), Thomas Spencer – Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales (IDDRI), France Sebastian Helgenberger & Sonja Thielges – Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Germany, Scott Vaughan – International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Canada, Shelagh Whitley – Overseas Development Institute (ODI), UK, Hermann Ott – Wuppertal Institute, Germany.
“Energy transformation towards 100% renewable energy is economically inevitable, and socially and environmentally desirable, yet it may produce negative signals in outdated statistics as fossil trade diminishes and the sector shrinks. This paradoxon should be addressed in a joint report by, e.g., IRENA, IMF, OECD, andthe World Bank, and the Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures.
Fossil fuel extraction and commodity trade will end, and fossil asset values erode. The industry’s role in capital formation, international trade, economic activity (GDP), and government revenue will decline. New energy systems, based on efficiency, renewables, storage, and smart management are cheaper to build, run and maintain. Growth of electricity use stimulates innovation, value creation, and growth in consumer rent, as renewable energy technologies harvest free environmental flows that are not traded and often for self-consumption. Total utility will grow while trade, GDP and the tax base may shrink. Reports should inform G20 Leaders, Ministers of Finance and Central Bank Governors on the true costs and benefits, and alert them to misleading signals.” Read More …
T20/G20 Policy Brief N°4 : INNOVATIVE GREEN-TECHNOLOGY SMES AS AN OPPORTUNITY TO PROMOTE FINANCIAL DE-RISKING
By Joël Ruet (The Bridge Tank and CNRS-CEPN), Elena Verdolini (FEEM and CMCC), Céline Bak (CIGI and Analytica Advisors), Anbumozhi Venkatachalam (ERIA)
“We recommend that the G20 target innovative green-technology SMEs as an opportunity to promote financial de-risking while addressing Paris Agreement commitments and UN Sustainable Development Goals. This should be achieved by creating signals for private investors through: (1) a reporting system that can help monitor the scale-up of green-technology SMEs; (2) the use of public funds to signal innovative green-technology SMEs to investors; and (3) the inclusion of SMEs in the design of green finance platforms. By implementing these recommendations, the G20 will ensure that innovative, low- carbon SMEs become attractive, low(er)-risk investment opportunities for the private sector.” Read more …
UNLOCKING THE POTENTIAL FOR WIND ENERGY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA, THE PHILIPPINES, AND THAILAND
The objective of this research paper is to provide an overview of the wind energy market in Southeast Asia and bridge the analytical gap.
The region is in the midst of an uncertain energy transition, and still faces a number of challenges. These include rapidly rising energy demand, undiversified energy production despite some interesting but insufficiently supported projects, infrastructure challenges, and regulatory schemes that need to be rapidly updated to encourage further development of renewables. Despite these elements of the current picture, Southeast Asia holds great potential in the renewable energy space, the vast majority of which remains untapped.
Download the research paper here.
Policy Brief N°3
UNLOCKING FINANCE: THE KEY FACTOR FOR INVESTMENT IN GREEN PROJECTS IN AFRICA LEADING UP TO THE COP22
A significant change in how investors approach green projects is underway. The fight against climate change requires and will require increases in the amount of capital being devoted to green projects. This underlines the importance of mobilizing financial actors from the private sector. Their awareness of this need and on the opportunities these investment give into re-defining the business, is already, for some of them, becoming a reality.
We now have the opportunity to move towards a “decarbonization“ of investment portfolios. For investment to match climate change mitigation goals, we will need concrete moves towards decarbonizing portfolios. The good news is that certain tools exist that can help make green projects more attractive to investors. This policy brief argues for renewed emphasis and action on these points to significantly boost investment. In other words, Africa is open for business.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT & INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Sustainable development, this meta-project that aims to secure development without harmful consequences for humankind and the environment, is of great necessity as our planet is threatened by climate change. In developing countries in particular, it requires the large-scale deployment of “clean” or environmentally sound technologies. The role of industrial property is often evoked in this deployment, either as a catalyst or a hindrance to the development of environmentally sound technologies. One aim of this study is to answer the question of the role of industrial property in the adoption of environmentally sound technologies in developing countries. Read more …
Policy Brief N°2
ENERGY TRANSITION: AN OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THE INDUSTRIALISATION OF TERRITORIES
Energy transition towards low-carbon production models, underway at the global level, is appearing to many as a driver of industrial growth. This Policy Brief highlights that this is only possible by combining the innovation and revitalization of industrial sectors historically present in the concerned areas.
To meet the challenge of a successful energy transition, we cannot ignore the specific industrial trajectories of each area. We should actually capitalise on these historical resources in order to benefit from new, ‘clean’, and inexhaustible resources.
This Policy Brief puts forward the systemic factors that appear to be indispensable for the ‘integrated’ success of energy transition. It leans particularly on the Brazilian example and on the potential for cogeneration within the reach of the sugar cane agribusiness and wind energy industries. The French example is also a good prism through which to understand the importance of ethical industrial trajectories that continue to make sense today in the diversification of the national energy mix, reflected by the shipbuilding industry and the role it plays in the development of renewable marine energy. More in french…